These reference works contain authoritative articles (and some data) on topics in chemistry and biochemistry. Written by experts in their respective fields, the articles contain extensive bibliographies to journal articles for further information. You can browse each reference work by topic or article title, or search across the full text, or even search at the publisher's website to search multiple reference works (like Wiley), though remember we might not have access to every reference work on a given publisher site. Publication years are included to give you an idea of the literature coverage within the articles.
The comprehensive Encyclopedia of Chemistry, Third Edition is the definitive reference to this vast subject area. Hundreds of chemistry-related entries, thought-provoking essays, leading discoveries, and biographies of notable chemists throughout history provide high school and early college students with the most complete information available. Addressing a subject whose understanding is crucial to all mature science students, Encyclopedia of Chemistry, Third Edition presents an engaging, informative approach to learning.
The 20-page bibliography is current to 2003. Other appended material includes a small sampling of chemistry-related Web sites, a brief listing of chemistry software sources, a list of Nobel Prize winners in chemistry, the periodic table of elements, and charts showing chemical reaction types and metals and alloys. An interesting addition is \"a set of essays by today's chemists on the role chemistry plays in our daily lives, ranging from how chemistry helps solve crimes to how it provides dyes for our latest fashions.\" These four essays are randomly inserted throughout the book.
Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem), meaning \"earth\") is the science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter, as well as the changes it undergoes during chemical reactions. Historically, modern chemistry evolved out of alchemy following the chemical revolution (1773). Chemistry is a physical science related to studies of various atoms, molecules, crystals and other aggregates of matter whether in isolation or combination. Chemistry incorporates the concepts of energy and entropy in relation to the spontaneity of chemical processes.
Disciplines within chemistry are traditionally grouped by the type of matter being studied or the kind of study. These include inorganic chemistry, the study of inorganic matter; organic chemistry, the study of organic matter; biochemistry, the study of substances found in biological organisms; physical chemistry, the energy related studies of chemical systems at macro, molecular and submolecular scales; analytical chemistry, the analysis of material samples to gain an understanding of their chemical composition and structure. Many more specialized disciplines have emerged in recent years, e.g. neurochemistry, the study of the chemical dynamics of the brain.
Chemistry is a large field comprising many sub-disciplines that often overlap with significant portions of other sciences. The defining feature of chemistry is that it involves matter in some way, which may include the interaction of matter with non-material phenomenon, such as energy for example. More central to chemistry is the interaction of matter with other matter such as in the classic chemical reaction where chemical bonds are broken and made, forming new molecules.
Most chemists have a broad general knowledge of many areas of chemistry as well as one or two areas of specialization. Chemistry is divided into many areas of study called sub-disciplines in which chemists specialize. The chemistry taught at the high school or early college level is often called \"general chemistry\" and is intended to be an introduction to a wide variety of fundamental concepts and to give the student the tools to continue on to more advanced subjects. Many concepts presented at this level are often incomplete and technically inaccurate, yet of extraordinary utility. Chemists regularly use these simple, elegant tools and explanations in their work when they suffice because the best solution possible is often so overwhelmingly difficult and the true solution is usually unobtainable.
Presented below are summaries and links to other articles that contain knowledge on a wide variety of sub-disciplines, techniques, theories, and tools used in chemistry. Although a good knowledge of chemistry only comes with many years of study, you may find small bits of knowledge here that may be helpful.
Atoms are the fundamental units of chemistry as each of the chemical elements comprises one distinctive type of atom. An atom consists of a positively charged core (the nucleus) composed of protons and neutrons surrounded at a relatively great distance by a number of electrons to balance the positive charge in the nucleus.
A chemical bond is the force that holds together atoms in molecules or crystals. In many simple compounds, valence bond theory and the concept of oxidation number can be used to predict molecular structure and composition. Similarly, theories from classical physics can be used to predict many ionic structures. With more complicated compounds, such as metal complexes, valence bond theory fails and alternative approaches based on quantum chemistry, such as molecular orbital theory, are necessary.
Quantum chemistry describes the behavior of matter at the molecular scale. It is, in principle, possible to describe all chemical systems using this theory. In practice, only the simplest chemical systems may realistically be investigated in purely quantum mechanical terms, and approximations must be made for most practical purposes (e.g., Hartree-Fock, post Hartree-Fock, or Density functional theory, see computational chemistry for more details). Hence a detailed understanding of quantum mechanics is not necessary for most chemistry, as the important implications of the theory (principally the orbital approximation) can be understood and applied in simpler terms.
The most fundamental concept in chemistry is the law of conservation of mass, which states that there is no detectable change in the quantity of matter during an ordinary chemical reaction. Modern physics shows that it is actually energy that is conserved, and that energy and mass are related; a concept which becomes important in nuclear chemistry. Conservation of energy leads to the important concepts of equilibrium, thermodynamics, and kinetics.
Further laws of chemistry elaborate on the law of conservation of mass. Joseph Proust's law of definite composition says that pure chemicals are composed of elements in a definite formulation; we now know that the structural arrangement of these elements is also important.
Dalton's law of multiple proportions says that these chemicals will present themselves in proportions that are small whole numbers (i.e., 1:2 O:H in water); although for biomacromolecules and mineral chemistry the ratios tend to require large numbers.
Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry is a major reference work related to industrial chemistry by Chemist Fritz Ullmann, first published in 1914, and exclusively in German as \"Enzyklopädie der Technischen Chemie\" until 1984.
Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry is a major reference work related to industrial chemistry by chemist Fritz Ullmann. Its 1st edition was published in German by Fritz Ullmann in 1914. The 4th edition, published 1972 to 1984, already contained 25 volumes. The 5th edition, published 1985 to 1996, was the first version available in English. In 1997, the first online version was published. 2014 marked its centenary.
In the 1940s, American Chemists Donald F. Othmer and Raymond E. Kirk from New York University began to create an English counterpart to Ullmann , named the Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. It was originally published by Wiley, which in 1996 took over the German Wiley-VCH publishing house and thus has combined the two encyclopedias ever since. The German chemistry magazine CHEManager wrote, quote: \"In a double pack, the two companion works are simply unbeatable, because the knowledge gathered in both offers answers to (almost) all questions that can arise in connection with chemical products and processes.\". These two encyclopedias were compared in Reference Reviews in 2007.
Chemistry is the study of the structure and transformation of matter.When Aristotle wrote the first systematic treatises on chemistry inthe 4th century BCE, his conceptual grasp of the nature ofmatter was tailored to accommodate a relatively simple range ofobservable phenomena. In the 21st century, chemistry hasbecome the largest scientific discipline, producing over half amillion publications a year ranging from direct empiricalinvestigations to substantial theoretical work. However, thespecialized interest in the conceptual issues arising in chemistry,hereafter Philosophy of Chemistry, is a relatively recentaddition to philosophy of science.
Philosophy of chemistry has two major parts. In the first, conceptualissues arising within chemistry are carefully articulated andanalyzed. Such questions which are internal to chemistry include thenature of substance, atomism, the chemical bond, and synthesis. In thesecond, traditional topics in philosophy of science such as realism,reduction, explanation, confirmation, and modeling are taken up withinthe context of chemistry.
In addition to providing the systematization of the elements used inmodern chemistry, Mendeleev also gave an account of the nature ofelements which informs contemporary philosophical understanding. Heexplicitly distinguished between the end of analysis and actualcomponents conceptions of elements and while he thought that bothnotions have chemical importance, he relied on the actual componentsthesis when constructing the Periodic Table. He assumed that theelements remained present in compounds and that the weights ofcompounds is the sum of the weights of their constituent atoms. He wasthus able to use atomic weights as the primary ordering property ofthe Periodic Table. 59ce067264